Monday, March 16, 2020

What Is Statistical Significance How Is It Calculated

What Is Statistical Significance How Is It Calculated SAT / ACT Prep Online Guides and Tips If you've ever read a wild headline like, "Study Shows Chewing Rocks Prevents Cancer," you've probably wondered how that could be possible. If you look closer at this type of article you may find that the sample size for the study was a mere handful of people. If one person in a group of five chewed rocks and didn't get cancer, does that mean chewing rocks prevented cancer? Definitely not. The study for such a conclusion doesn't have statistical significance- though the study was performed, its conclusions don't really mean anything because the sample size was small. So what is statistical significance, and how do you calculate it? In this article, we'll cover what it is, when it's used, and go step-by-step through the process of determining if an experiment is statistically significant on your own. What Is Statistical Significance? As I mentioned above, the fake study about chewing rocks isn't statistically significant. What that means is that the conclusion reached in it isn't valid, because there's not enough evidence that what happened was not random chance. A statistically significant result would be one where, after rigorous testing, you reach a certain degree of confidence in the results. We call that degree of confidence our confidence level, which demonstrates how sure we are that our data was not skewed by random chance. More specifically, the confidence level is the likelihood that an interval will contain values for the parameter we're testing. There are three major ways of determining statistical significance: If you run an experiment and your p-value is less than your alpha (significance) level, your test is statistically significant If your confidence interval doesn't contain your null hypothesis value, your test is statistically significant If your p-value is less than your alpha, your confidence interval will not contain your null hypothesis value, and will therefore be statistically significant This info probably doesn't make a whole lot of sense if you're not already acquainted with the terms involved in calculating statistical significance, so let's take a look at what it means in practice. Say, for example, that we want to determine the average typing speed of 12-year-olds in America. We'll confirm our results using the second method, our confidence interval, as it's the simplest to explain quickly. First, we'll need to set our p-value, which tells us the probability of our results being at least as extreme as they were in our sample data if our null hypothesis (a statement that there is no difference between tested information), such as that all 12-year-old students type at the same speed) is true. A typical p-value is 5 percent, or 0.05, which is appropriate for many situations but can be adjusted for more sensitive experiments, such as in building airplanes. For our experiment, 5 percent is fine. If our p-value is 5 percent, our confidence level is 95 percent- it's always the inverse of your p-value. Our confidence level expresses how sure we are that, if we were to repeat our experiment with another sample, we would get the same averages- it is not a representation of the likelihood that the entire population will fall within this range. Testing the typing speed of every 12-year-old in America is unfeasible, so we'll take a sample- 100 12-year-olds from a variety of places and backgrounds within the US. Once we average all that data, we determine the average typing speed of our sample is 45 words per minute, with a standard deviation of five words per minute. From there, we can extrapolate that the average typing speed of 12-year-olds in America is somewhere between $45 - 5z$ words per minute and $45 + 5z$ words per minute. That's our confidence interval- a range of numbers we can be confident contain our true value, in this case the real average of the typing speed of 12-year-old Americans. Our z-score, ‘z,' is determined by our confidence value. In our case, given our confidence value, that would look like $45 - 5(1.96)$ and $45 + 5(1.96)$, making our confidence interval 35.2 to 54.8. A wider confidence interval, say with a standard deviation of 15 words per minute, would give us more confidence that the true average of the entire population would fall in that range ($45Â ± \bo{15}(1.96)$), but would be less accurate. More importantly for our purposes, if your confidence interval doesn't include the null hypothesis, your result is statistically significant. Since our results demonstrate that not all 12-year-olds type the same speed, our results are significant. One reason you might set your confidence rating lower is if you are concerned about sampling errors. A sampling error, which is a common cause for skewed data, is what happens when your study is based on flawed data. For example, if you polled a group of people at McDonald's about their favorite foods, you'd probably get a good amount of people saying hamburgers. If you polled the people at a vegan restaurant, you'd be unlikely to get the same results, so if your conclusion from the first study is that most peoples' favorite food is hamburgers, you're relying on a sampling error. It's important to remember that statistical significance is not necessarily a guarantee that something is objectively true. Statistical significance can be strong or weak, and researchers can factor in bias or variances to figure out how valid the conclusion is. Any rigorous study will have numerous phases of testing- one person chewing rocks and not getting cancer is not a rigorous study. Essentially, statistical significance tells you that your hypothesis has basis and is worth studying further. For example, say you have a suspicion that a quarter might be weighted unevenly. If you flip it 100 times and get 75 heads and 25 tails, that might suggest that the coin is rigged. That result, which deviates from expectations by over 5 percent, is statistically significant. Because each coin flip has a 50/50 chance of being heads or tails, these results would tell you to look deeper into it, not that your coin is definitely rigged to flip heads over tails. The results are statistically significant in that there is a clear tendency to flip heads over tails, but that itself is not an indication that the coin is flawed. What Is Statistical Significance Used For? Statistical significance is important in a variety of fields- any time you need to test whether something is effective, statistical significance plays a role. This can be very simple, like determining whether the dice produced for a tabletop role-playing game are well-balanced, or it can be very complex, like determining whether a new medicine that sometimes causes an unpleasant side effect is still worth releasing. Statistical significance is also frequently used in business to determine whether one thing is more effective than another. This is called A/B testing- two variants, one A and one B, are tested to see which is more successful. In school, you're most likely to learn about statistical significance in a science or statistics context, but it can be applied in a great number of fields. Any time you need to determine whether something is demonstrably true or just up to chance, you can use statistical significance! How to Calculate Statistical Significance Calculating statistical significance is complex- most people use calculators rather than try to solve equations by hand. Z-test calculators and t-test calculators are two ways you can drastically slim down the amount of work you have to do. However, learning how to calculate statistical significance by hand is a great way to ensure you really understand how each piece works. Let's go through the process step by step! Step 1: Set a Null Hypothesis To set up calculating statistical significance, first designate your null hypothesis, or H0. Your null hypothesis should state that there is no difference between your data sets. For example, let's say we're testing the effectiveness of a fertilizer by taking half of a group of 20 plants and treating half of them with fertilizer. Our null hypothesis will be something like, "This fertilizer will have no effect on the plant's growth." Step 2: Set an Alternative Hypothesis Next, you need an alternative hypothesis, Ha. Your alternative hypothesis is generally the opposite of your null hypothesis, so in this case it would be something like, "This fertilizer will cause the plants who get treated with it to grow faster." Step 3: Determine Your Alpha Third, you'll want to set the significance level, also known as alpha, or ÃŽ ±. The alpha is the probability of rejecting a null hypothesis when that hypothesis is true. In the case of our fertilizer example, the alpha is the probability of concluding that the fertilizer does make plants treated with it grow more when the fertilizer does not actually have an effect. An alpha of 0.05, or 5 percent, is standard, but if you're running a particularly sensitive experiment, such as testing a medicine or building an airplane, 0.01 may be more appropriate. For our fertilizer experiment, a 0.05 alpha is fine. Your confidence level is $1 - ÃŽ ±(100%)$, so if your alpha is 0.05, that makes your confidence level 95%. Again, your alpha can be changed depending on the sensitivity of the experiment, but most will use 0.05. Step 4: One- or Two-Tailed Test Fourth, you'll need to decide whether a one- or two-tailed test is more appropriate. One-tailed tests examine the relationship between two things in one direction, such as if the fertilizer makes the plant grow. A two-tailed test measures in two directions, such as if the fertilizer makes the plant grow or shrink. Since in our example we don't want to know if the plant shrinks, we'd choose a one-tailed test. But if we were testing something more complex, like whether a particular ad placement made customers more likely to click on it or less likely to click on it, a two-tailed test would be more appropriate. A two-tailed test is also appropriate if you're not sure which direction the results will go, just that you think there will be an effect. For example, if you wanted to test whether or not adding salt to boiling water while making pasta made a difference to taste, but weren't sure if it would have a positive or negative effect, you'd probably want to go with a two-tailed test. Step 5: Sample Size Next, determine your sample size. To do so, you'll conduct a power analysis, which gives you the probability of seeing your hypothesis demonstrated given a particular sample size. Statistical power tells us the probability of us accepting an alternative, true hypothesis over the null hypothesis. A higher statistical power gives lowers our probability of getting a false negative response for our experiment. In the case of our fertilizer experiment, a higher statistical power means that we will be less likely to accept that there is no effect from fertilizer when there is, in fact, an effect. A power analysis consists of four major pieces: The effect size, which tells us the magnitude of a result within the population The sample size, which tells us how many observations we have within the sample The significance level, which is our alpha The statistical power, which is the probability that we accept an alternative hypothesis if it is true Many experiments are run with a typical power, or ÃŽ ², of 80 percent. Because these calculations are complex, it's not recommended to try to calculate them by hand- instead, most people will use a calculator like this one to figure out their sample size. Conducting a power analysis lets you know how big of a sample size you'll need to determine statistical significance. If you only test on a handful of samples, you may end up with a result that's inaccurate- it may give you a false positive or a false negative. Doing an accurate power analysis helps ensure that your results are legitimate. Step 6: Find Standard Deviation Sixth, you'll be calculating the standard deviation, $s$ (also sometimes written as $ÏÆ'$). This is where the formula gets particularly complex, as this tells you how spread out your data is. The formula for standard deviation of a sample is: $$s = √{{∑(x_i – Â µ)^2}/(N – 1)}$$ In this equation, $s$ is the standard deviation $∑$ tells you to sum all the data you collected $x_i$ is each individual data $Â µ$ is the mean of your data for each group $N$ is your total sample So, to work this out, let's go with our preliminary fertilizer test on ten plants, which might give us data something like this: Plant Growth (inches) 1 2 2 1 3 4 4 5 5 3 6 1 7 5 8 4 9 4 10 4 We need to average that data, so we add it all together and divide by the total sample number. $(2 + 1 + 4 + 5 + 3 + 1 + 5 + 4 + 4 + 4) / 10 = 3.3$ Next, we subtract each sample from the average $(x_i – Â µ)$, which will look like this: Plant Growth (inches) $x_i – Â µ$ 1 2 1.3 2 1 2.3 3 4 -0.7 4 5 -1.7 5 3 0.3 6 1 2.3 7 5 -1.7 8 4 -0.7 9 4 -0.7 10 4 -0.7 Now we square all of those numbers and add them together. $1.32 + 2.32 + -0.72 + -1.72 + 0.32 + 2.32 + -1.72 + -0.72 + -0.72 + -0.72 = 20.1$ Next, we'll divide that number by the total sample number, N, minus 1. $20.1/9 = 2.23$ And finally, to find the standard deviation, we'll take the square root of that number. $√2.23=1.4933184523$ But that's not the end. We also need to calculate the variance between sample groups, if we have more than one sample group. In our case, let's say that we did a second experiment where we didn't add fertilizer so we could see what the growth looked like on its own, and these were our results: Plant Growth (inches) 1 1 2 1 3 2 4 1 5 3 6 1 7 1 8 2 9 1 10 1 So let's run through the standard deviation calculation again. #1: Average Data $1 + 1 + 2+ 1 + 3 + 1 + 1 + 2 + 1 + 1 = 14$ $14/10 = 1.4$ #2: Subtract each sample from the average $(x_i – Â µ)$. $0.4 + 0.4 + (-0.4) + 0.4 + (-1.6) + 0.4 + 0.4 + (-0.4) + 0.4 + 0.4 = 0.4$ #3: Divide the last number by the total sample number, N, minus 1. $0.4/9=0.0444$ #4: Take the square root of the previous number. $√0.0444 = 0.2107130751$ Step 7: Run Standard Error Formula Okay, now we have our two standard deviations (one for the group with fertilizer, one for the group without). Next, we need to run through the standard error formula, which is: $$s_d = √((s_1/N_1) + (s_2/N_2))$$ In this equation: $s_d$ is the standard error $s_1$ is the standard deviation of group one $N_1$ is the sample size of group one $s_2$ is the standard deviation of group two $N_2$ is the sample size of group two So let's work through this. First, let's figure out $s_1/N_1$. With our numbers, that becomes $1.4933184523/10$, or 0.14933184523. Next, let's do $s_2/N_2$. With our numbers, that becomes $0.2107130751/10$, or 0.02107130751. Next, we need to add those two numbers together. $0.14933184523 + 0.02107130751 = 0.17040315274$ And finally, we'll take the square root: $√0.17040315274 = 0.41279916756$ So our standard error $s_d$, is 0.41279916756. Step 8: Find t-Score But we're still not done! Now you're probably seeing why most people use a calculator for this. Next up: t-score. Your t-score is what allows you to compare your data to other data, which tells you the probability of the two groups being significantly different. The formula for t-score is $$t = (Â µ_1 – Â µ_2)/s_d$$ where: $t$ is the t-score $Â µ_1$ is the average of group one $Â µ_2$ is the average of group two $s_d$ is the standard error So for our numbers, this equation would look like: $t = (3.3 - 1.4)/0.41279916756$ $t = 4.60272246001$ Step 9: Find Degrees of Freedom We're almost there! Next, we'll find our degrees of freedom ($df$), which tells you how many values in a calculation can vary acceptably. To calculate this, we add the number of samples in each group and subtract two. In our case, that looks like this: $$(10 + 10) - 2 = 18$$ Step 10: Use a T-Table to Find Statistical Significance And now we'll use a t-table to figure out whether our conclusions are significant. To use the t-table, we first look on the left-hand side for our $df$, which in this case is 18. Next, scan along that row of variances until you find ours, which we'll round to 4.603. Whoa! We're off the chart! Scan upward until you see the p-values at the top of the chart and you'll find that our p-value is something smaller than 0.0005, which is well below our significance level. So is our study on whether our fertilizer makes plants grow taller valid? The final stage of determining statistical significance is comparing your p-value to your alpha. In this case, our alpha is 0.05, and our p-value is well below 0.05. Since one of the methods of determining statistical significance is to demonstrate that your p-value is less than your alpha level, we've succeeded! The data seems to suggest that our fertilizer does make plants grow, and with a p-value of 0.0005 at a significance level of 0.05, it's definitely significant! Now, if we're doing a rigorous study, we should test again on a larger scale to verify that the results can be replicated and that there weren't any other variables at work to make the plants taller. Tools to Use For Statistical Significance Calculators make calculating statistical significance a lot easier. Most people will do their calculations this way instead of by hand, as doing them without tools is more likely to introduce errors in an already sensitive process. To get you started, here are some calculators you can use to make your work simpler: How to Calculate T-Score on a TI-83 Find Sample Size and Confidence Interval T-Test Calculator T-Test Formula for Excel Find P-Value with Excel What's Next? Need to brush up on AP Stats? These free AP Statistics practice tests are exactly what you need! If you're struggling with statistics on the SAT Math section, check out this guide to strategies for mean, median, and mode! This formula sheet for AP Statistics covers all the formulas you'll need to know for a great score on your AP test!

Saturday, February 29, 2020

Analyzing Romanticism in Pushkins The Shot

Analyzing Romanticism in Pushkin's "The Shot" A theme that is immediately apparent in Pushkin’s The Shot is â€Å"the noble man with a romanticized view of life†. This theme was common during the Romantic Era, the period in which Pushkin wrote, but is important for more than historical reasons; in many ways, such romanticization guides the entire experience of reading Pushkins storyline. As it often did, this theme takes place in an emotionally charged, descriptive narrative. Yet the true importance of Pushkins romanticism, here, is the manner in which romantic ideals guide the life of the Silvio, the character central to The Shot. From the onset of the story, Pushkin makes his protagonotist an outsider. While he lives in a military outpost surrounded by Russian men, his name is â€Å"Silvio†, which is clearly not of Russian origin. He is older than the rest of the men and has mysterious qualities to him. His personality traits are paradoxical; he is inviting and keeps the door to his home open for all, yet mentally he is aloof from the rest. This aloofness makes the other men simultaneously respect and fear him. Pushkin wrote that â€Å"nobody knew what his circumstances were, or what his income was, and nobody dared to inquire about them† (23). While Silvio keeps his life separate from everybody else’s, the other men all scramble to understand what makes him seem so powerful. Pushkin makes the reader curious about this aloof character when he writes that Silvio’s walls â€Å"were riddled with bullet holes, and were like a honeycomb in appearance† (23). The idea of a noble ou tsider is already romantic and embodies the greater romantic theme of the isolated, heroic man. The reader knows from the start that there is something heroic about Silvio. Even his name sounds subjectively heroic. Pushkin writes that â€Å"nobody knew the reasons that had prompted him to resign his commission and settle down in a wretched little town† (22), making it clear that Silvio’s life was once much more important. Silvio also rejects material wealth; his â€Å"rich collection of pistols was the only luxury in the wretched mud-walled cottage in which he lived† (23). Even before the Romantic Period, going back to religious philosophy in Buddhism and Christianity, people who rejected their material wealth were historically viewed as heroic. Heroism stemming from individuality was an important theme in literature during The Romantic Era because it paralleled the surrounding environment that Romantic Era authors lived in. Many authors writing during the Romantic Era, such as Pushkin, experienced oppression from their government and expressed their free will through writing. Writers would often brighten their otherwise bleak reality by writing imaginative stories where an outsider, just like them, stood up against a formal, oppressive lifestyle to live passionately. The setting of this novel parallels Pushkin’s own struggle to do that; a group of men are entrapped in a monotonous military outpost where â€Å"there was nothing to look at but each other’s uniforms† (22) and they create a more arousing life for themselves by regarding Silvio as â€Å"the hero of some strange tale† (24). Silvio is a hero to them because he practices individuality in an otherwise conformist setting. Pushkin continues to slowly reveal more details about Silvio’s life to the reader. The reader finds out that Silvio had once entered a duel that ended in an unusual way. Pushkin romanticizes this duel in its entirety. At the beginning of the duel, Silvio offers the first shot to his opponent, who would not agree to take it (27). A duel in which one’s life is at stake is not the time to try to be heroic, or, I guess in the case of a Russian Romanticist novel, it’s the perfect time. Next, Pushkin focuses on psychology and introspection, giving the reader a glance into the thoughts of a man that is about to shoot another man. When telling his story to the narrator, Silvio says: â€Å"He stood in range of my pistol, selecting ripe cherries from his cap and spitting out the stones so that they almost fell at my feet. His indifference infuriated me. ‘What’s the use’, I thought, ‘of depriving him of his life when he sets no value upon itâ€⠄¢Ã¢â‚¬  (27)? While duels are considered barbaric in the present day, Pushkin presents the duel as a showcase of pride and sentiment that is valued above a victory. The reader ultimately finds out that Silvio was waiting to finish the duel when his opponent began to value his life. Silvio waited five years for his opponent to become a happily married man, and every day during those five years he practiced his shooting skills. When Silvio continues the duel, he ends it by forcing his opponent to shoot at him, and then tells his opponent, â€Å"I am satisfied. I have seen your alarm, your confusion; I forced you to shoot at me, and that is enough. You will remember me. I commit you to your conscience† (32). Silvio waited to not even take this man’s life, but to make this man remember him indefinitely. Silvio then took a shot, marking a bullet hole above the one his opponent made, showing that his opponent’s life may well have been his. Knowing that Silvio had trained five years to become a perfect shot just to nobly let his opponent keep his life makes the ending emotionally charged and romanticizes the ideals of honor and pri de. Works Cited Gibian, George. The Shot. The Portable Nineteenth-century Russian Reader. New York, NY, U.S.A.: Penguin, 1993. 22-33. Print.

Wednesday, February 12, 2020

E-Commerce Application Development Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1750 words

E-Commerce Application Development - Essay Example There are five types of e-business models that form the basic structure on which websites are based. These five models are vanity, billboard, advertising, subscription and storefront. Many sites also combine these basic models. All sites incur cost of development and maintenance, though they may not be deriving direct revenue from it. The five models of e-commerce have unique characteristics. The Vanity model, as the name suggests, cater typically to individuals who start it as an outlet for expression, to share a hobby, promote a cause such as an environmental or social agenda, etc. The site then acts like an online forum, to bring people together. A very good example for such a site is greenpeace.org. The site brings together people who are conscious about the degradation of the environment and helps raise a voice against issues such as climate change, endangered species, deforestation etc. The revenue models for such Vanity sites build up through advertisements of related organisations, services and products. In the case of Greenpeace, the site is maintained mainly through donations. The costs of vanity sites are either born by the individual or by philanthropic institutions such as associations, universities or may be businesses. This e-commerce model is designed to work like a billboard. Also called the brochure or information sites, Billboard models derive economic benefit indirectly through referred sales and reduced cost. The sites creates product awareness through the online medium, however, the actual buying and selling takes place off-line. Netizens surf and view the sites and the model functions in the same way as a billboard on a highway. The success of the site is measured according to the hits or viewership it gets. The site influences people to buy the product. The perfect real world example of this model is billboard.com. The site gives you music news, reviews, articles, information about live shows and more. You can listen to music, and download free music. The site also ranks music and ranks the best songs for any genre. The revenue model, what is apparent from the site, are advertisements related to the music world. For example you can buy Billboard magazine from the site. The Advertising model, in e-commerce, is similar to the model followed by radio, television and the print medium, among other things. The programme and the content are totally funded by the advertiser's money and the 'viewership' of the site decides the advertisement rate and volume. Surveys conducted by the websites can establish the 'viewership' of the sites and the advertising rates are decided likewise. The various forms of advertising for e-commerce are banners, sponsorships, ezine ads and other promotion methods. The Subscription model, though very well established in the 'real' world, has not become so prominent in the e-world. Consumers have not yet accepted the culture of subscriptions on the web. The subscription models, on the web, target particular niches of individuals with specific needs. These sites are often specialized with expert content and timely information. The subscriptions fund the development and

Saturday, February 1, 2020

The Public Needs to Know Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words - 1

The Public Needs to Know - Essay Example Adams and Brantner (2006) reveal that cancer is the number one killer disease in the United States today. The research showed that over one million people in the U.S. are diagnosed with the cancer every year. This is a worrying statistics considering the fact that no drug has been developed that can cure the disease today. The only hope currently is for one to obtain regular screening to aid early detection, which research shows to increase survival chances if treated immediately with the available drugs. Despite this being the case, cancer treatment is very expensive and many American citizens lack the health insurance. Therefore, to arrest the situation, there is urgent need to develop drugs capable of treating this killer disease. The aim of this discourse is to explore the major issues that might arise due to the development of a cancer treatment drug. The issues to be discussed include economic issues and the special needs of the population being served. In addition, the paper w ill describe the processes that will be involved in the development of the program and its benefits to the population. Economic issues Cancer treatments are the most expensive medical treatment in the United States today. ... Analysts argue that this cost is not only worrying, but is also unrealistic in this day and age when the American economy is struggling to recover from recession. Furthermore, everyone involved in this problem is left wondering how we will be able to afford the cost of cancer in the next decade. It is believed that doctors will only recommend treatments depending on the out-of-pocket spending by patients. Currently almost everyone in the country is worried of how the cost of cancer treatment will be met in the future. As a result, the company’s intention to develop a new cancer treatment drug will be of immense benefit to economically. It will result in a reduction in the cost of healthcare, which would lead to a reduction in the government spending on cancer-related treatments (Jonsson and Wilking 2011). Special needs Currently physicians depend use mainly chemotherapy and radiography to treat cancer. However, patients are concerned that these treatment methods are not only e xpensive and not affordable to many, but are also painful. As a result, patients need a new treatment method that is not only cheap and affordable, but also safe and does not involve a painful experience. This special need can only be addressed through the development of a new treatment drug for cancer. Developing the drug will make the treatment of cancer easier and safer than the methods used today. Furthermore, it will enable the treatment of cancer possible even if cancer is diagnosed very late (Adams and Brantner, 2006). The image shows a patient diagnosed of cancer of the skin. Process involved in the development of the program The process involved in the development of a cancer treatment drug is normally cumbersome and takes from 7 to

Thursday, January 23, 2020

Dialectical Journals- Things Fall Apart Essay -- essays research paper

Dialectical Journals 1. â€Å"His fame rested on solid personal achievements.† Pg. 3 paragraph 1 All fame begins when you do something noticeable. For example, actors and actresses build upon their careers and reputations by achieving excellence in their personal goals, as well as perfecting their public performance. 2. â€Å"†¦It was said that when he slept, his wives and children in his houses could hear him breathe.† Pg. 4 paragraph 1 One question that comes to mind when I read this is if he alternates between homes on certain days or months. From what I understand, it used to be socially acceptable to have many wives and children, but they all lived together in one home, scattered among different chambers within the house. The use of the word â€Å"homes† is what made me wonder. 3. â€Å"He always said that whenever he saw a dead man’s mouth he saw the folly of not eating what one had in one’s lifetime.† Pg. 4 paragraph 2 I think that what the author was trying to imply in this passage was that in his personal experience, he has noticed that many people take many things for granted and that they don’t live their lives according to what they want and need to do. So much is wasted during one’s lifetime, and people just allow their lives to pass them by. 4. â€Å"As he broke the kola, Unoka prayed to their ancestors for life and health, and for protection against their enemies.† Pg. 6 paragraph 5 The impression that I got was that Okoye just came over on a whim. Is it customary to honor and pray to the ancestors whenever you have company; expected or unexpected? This seems awkward. 5. â€Å"Okoye was also a musician. He played on the ogene. But he was not a failure like Unoka.† Pg. 7 paragraph 6 I can compare this selection to my personal life in both the resent and the past. Even though I have many things in common with my friends, I often feel like a failure in comparison to them, as if they are better than I am at things that we do regularly, much like Unoka in comparison to Okoye. 6. â€Å"A snake was never called by its name at night, because it would hear.† Pg. 9 paragraph 2 The act of fear is much more common in the dark. In the dark, people expect things to be lurking around the bend, waiting for someone to summon it. I can relate this selection to my past experiences with my friends. When we were in elementary school, we would go into a dark bathroom and say the name, ... ...hy, disgusting insects. If the villagers knew what the small, disaster-riddled pests were capable of doing, then they would fear the swarm’s return instead of praising and rejoicing it. 25. â€Å"My daughter’s suitor is coming today.† Pg. 65 paragraph 7 Why is a ten-year-old child getting married? Is the â€Å"man† also ten years old? Why would an adult want to marry someone who hasn’t even reached adolescence yet? It made sense to them to sell their daughters for marriage once they started menstruating, but why would they sell off a child who probably wouldn’t start to do that for up to two years after the marriage. 26. â€Å"You might as well say that the woman lies on top of the man when they are making the children.† Pg. 74 paragraph 3 This shows that in the days of this book, sex was just for making children; not for fun. Now a day, men like sex in a variety of positions. They often like domineering women who are on the top rather than the bottom. I suppose that back then, the men had little respect for the women so they felt that they should be below them. If they were on top during sex, then the men may feel intimidated by the woman’s strength and be disgusted that they have no shame. Dialectical Journals- Things Fall Apart Essay -- essays research paper Dialectical Journals 1. â€Å"His fame rested on solid personal achievements.† Pg. 3 paragraph 1 All fame begins when you do something noticeable. For example, actors and actresses build upon their careers and reputations by achieving excellence in their personal goals, as well as perfecting their public performance. 2. â€Å"†¦It was said that when he slept, his wives and children in his houses could hear him breathe.† Pg. 4 paragraph 1 One question that comes to mind when I read this is if he alternates between homes on certain days or months. From what I understand, it used to be socially acceptable to have many wives and children, but they all lived together in one home, scattered among different chambers within the house. The use of the word â€Å"homes† is what made me wonder. 3. â€Å"He always said that whenever he saw a dead man’s mouth he saw the folly of not eating what one had in one’s lifetime.† Pg. 4 paragraph 2 I think that what the author was trying to imply in this passage was that in his personal experience, he has noticed that many people take many things for granted and that they don’t live their lives according to what they want and need to do. So much is wasted during one’s lifetime, and people just allow their lives to pass them by. 4. â€Å"As he broke the kola, Unoka prayed to their ancestors for life and health, and for protection against their enemies.† Pg. 6 paragraph 5 The impression that I got was that Okoye just came over on a whim. Is it customary to honor and pray to the ancestors whenever you have company; expected or unexpected? This seems awkward. 5. â€Å"Okoye was also a musician. He played on the ogene. But he was not a failure like Unoka.† Pg. 7 paragraph 6 I can compare this selection to my personal life in both the resent and the past. Even though I have many things in common with my friends, I often feel like a failure in comparison to them, as if they are better than I am at things that we do regularly, much like Unoka in comparison to Okoye. 6. â€Å"A snake was never called by its name at night, because it would hear.† Pg. 9 paragraph 2 The act of fear is much more common in the dark. In the dark, people expect things to be lurking around the bend, waiting for someone to summon it. I can relate this selection to my past experiences with my friends. When we were in elementary school, we would go into a dark bathroom and say the name, ... ...hy, disgusting insects. If the villagers knew what the small, disaster-riddled pests were capable of doing, then they would fear the swarm’s return instead of praising and rejoicing it. 25. â€Å"My daughter’s suitor is coming today.† Pg. 65 paragraph 7 Why is a ten-year-old child getting married? Is the â€Å"man† also ten years old? Why would an adult want to marry someone who hasn’t even reached adolescence yet? It made sense to them to sell their daughters for marriage once they started menstruating, but why would they sell off a child who probably wouldn’t start to do that for up to two years after the marriage. 26. â€Å"You might as well say that the woman lies on top of the man when they are making the children.† Pg. 74 paragraph 3 This shows that in the days of this book, sex was just for making children; not for fun. Now a day, men like sex in a variety of positions. They often like domineering women who are on the top rather than the bottom. I suppose that back then, the men had little respect for the women so they felt that they should be below them. If they were on top during sex, then the men may feel intimidated by the woman’s strength and be disgusted that they have no shame.

Wednesday, January 15, 2020

Differences in Teaching Styles Essay

â€Å"Young children too may die†¦Ã¢â‚¬  (The New England Primer 129). When reading this statement it is difficult to comprehend that this is written in a children’s book. The New England Primer is the book that was used to teach Puritan students to read in the 1700’s. There are many differences in the way that students were taught in the 1700’s and how they are taught today. A few of these differences are; that in the 1700’s, being taught religion was more important than to gain actual knowledge, and learning to have obedience and morals was an important part of a child’s school day, the content of The New England Primer and other modern children’s books, as well as the ultimate reason for children learning to read is altogether different. Religion was the main focus of the reading in The New England Primer. Today, children are taught to read by using a list of ABC’s, and saying, â€Å"A is for Apple, B is for Boy†¦Ã¢â‚¬  and it is made so that it is easier for younger students to understand. The list of ABC’s in The New England Primer has the letter and then a picture next to it, but instead of having a word that would make it easier for the children to understand there is a sentence such as, â€Å"A – In Adam’s Fall/ We Sinned all, B – Thy Life to Mend/ This Book Attend†¦Ã¢â‚¬  (The New England Primer 128) but some were more appealing to the students (Kreilkamp), â€Å"The Cat doth play/ And after flay, Nightengales fing/ In Time of Spring† (The New England Primer 128). The students learned in the book through sin, disobedience, and death, instead of learning through things that children learn through today such as dogs, love, and happiness. All of the ABC’s sentences are about God and the Bible, so there is no room for the child to disagree with any part of the ABC’s. The children read about things such as, God’s Works, Fall of Adam, Jesus, Justification, Adoption, and Sanctification. These are things that are important for a child to learn, but also make it harder for them to read with large words and concepts that are difficult to understand. Children today read about things that interest them and have different reading levels to make learning to read easy and fun. If a child today were handed The New England Primer they probably would not want to read it or may not even have the ability to read it. The Puritan children did not know anything other than The New England Primer, so they did not have anything to compare it to. The children in the 1700’s saw God and Jesus as, â€Å"the avenging father and a forgiving son† (Watters 2) because that is how The New England Primer portrays them. In the time between the 1660’s and the 1690’s, God went from being portrayed as an angry and wrathful God, to being a loving and caring God. (Elliot 13-14) The New England Primer failed to show that shift in beliefs so the children would continue to fear God and obey their parents and elders. The parents wanted the students to have a thorough understanding of God, Jesus, and the Bible, so it was the first thing that they learned and everything was based on this particular concept. The New England Primer was used to teach students to read as well as to teach them to be obedient and to have good morals. It tells the students that Adam and Eve were sinful and disobedient so they were punished by God, but it also says that children are guilty for their own thinking and deserve continued punishment. The children read, â€Å"The Dutiful Child’s Promises†, which is a list of things that a dutiful child does, or strives to do. The children are told to â€Å"honour my Father & Mother† and to â€Å"Fear God and honour the King† (The New England Primer 129). The children were also told to follow the Ten Commandments, which were also to be memorized so that God could â€Å"read† them. This shows how fearful and compliant the children are to their parents and to God. The children also were encouraged to memorize â€Å"The Dutiful Child’s Promises† so that they could use it to make correct and obedient decisions. Punishments for the Puritan children were emphasized in the ABC part of The New England Primer, by â€Å"F – The Idol Fool Is whipt at School†. This was an additional warning to the students that they must behave in the classroom or there will be punishments. The punishments in the 1700’s and today are very different, back then teachers could hit their students with rulers, but today teachers may not even raise their voices with students without the risk of losing their jobs. The first theme that you read about in The New England Primer is death, and death is a very heavy topic for children in today’s age for many different reasons. In the 1700’s, children understood death, better than children today, because it surrounded them every day. The hardships that the Puritans faced are nothing like any young student today could possibly understand. Death is understood by the Puritan children, and when The New England Primer says, â€Å"Rachel doth mourn for her fifst born†, the children understand it because they many of them have lost a sibling because of the lack of medical knowledge in the 1700’s. It seems dark and depressing to people today, because today’s society is uncomfortable with talking about death and dying. For the children in the 1700’s it was just a way of life and something that happened every day. The New England Primer emphasized that very point in the Verses of â€Å"The Dutiful Child’s Promise† in saying that death does not only take away the old, but that children can die as well, and so they need to be prepared when they do die to go to Heaven. Children today are getting saved, but they are not doing so to get prepared for death, they are getting ready to serve God with all of their heart and soul. Students today are being taught with the mind set of learning everything they can to reach their own personal goals in life. In the 1700’s the reason for reading was very different from the way that it is today. The parents wanted to children to be able to read so they could read the Bible, not so they could learn about different topics or to read for enjoyment. When educating students today, it is understood that it is the end goal for teachers to help the students get ready to be able to provide a living for themselves with the knowledge that they learn, but in the 1700’s it wasn’t necessary to learn to read for any other reason than the bible because the poems emphasized how to live and act. The New England Primer was â€Å"designed to provide, Spiritual Milk for American Babes† (Anthology of American Literature) and to keep them from being tempted by Satan and other religions that may try and tempt them. The people of the 1700’s believed that there were, â€Å"millions to read, and not one to sin† (Anthology of American Literature), which means that it was believed that the people who read The New England Primer, understood what God wanted them to do and how He wanted them to live, never sinned again, for fear of angering God. The idea of people never sinning again from reading a book is not accurate and students today will read and understand what is going on in the book and be able to enjoy it. The New England Primer was the most important book in teaching Puritan students in the 1700’s to read, but the most important book that they could read was the Bible. The Puritans emphasized their belief in God in every aspect of their lives, especially in teaching their children to e good and kind members of the Puritan community. Teachers of student’s today want to see their students progress and keep learning even after they have learned how to read, because it teaches them about the world that we live on and what is going on outside of their houses and towns. There are many differences between the teachings in the 1700’s and the teachings today, but in the end the important thing is teaching the students to read.

Tuesday, January 7, 2020

The History of Rock and Roll Essay - 2144 Words

Rock and roll has developed a long way throughout the years from a dance craze in the 1950s to a political and cultural landscape that is recognized worldwide. Rock and roll has come to define the roots of teenage rebellion, people who dont follow the norms, and have disrespect for authority. The style of rock and roll itself is a melting pot of music, a combination of sounds that include jazz, country, blues, ragtime, gospel, swing, classical, and ethnic music. It can be a simple variation of three chords to a complex chromatic scale combination. It can convey emotions such as love, hate, fear, lust, sadness, joy, disillusion, or a strong sense of reality. Many things can be said about rock but the fact is that it is the most widely†¦show more content†¦The Grateful Dead fused country, blues, jazz, and bluegrass on electric instruments and held acid tests where LSD was given to thousands of people and a concert was held all day. Janis Joplin was also a major part of the psy chedelic era. Blues also heavily influenced Janis, who greatly admired the female blues singer Odetta (Kallen 65). Janis is most remembered for her heavily emotional voice in songs such as Piece of My Heart and Ball and Chain where she sang with her face contorted, sometimes stamping her feet, clutching the microphone with one hand, and a whiskey bottle with the other. Of all the artists of the psychedelic era, Jimi Hendrix was the most influential. Jimi took inspiration from the soulful guitar of blues players and developed his own style from it. Jimi was left-handed and played his Stratocaster guitar upside down while creating unearthly sounds that humbled other guitarists of the time. Hendrix was unknown until playing at the Monterey Pop Festival in 1967 where he played an amazing array of songs and then lit his guitar on fire at the end of the show (DeCurtis 133). Although Jimi seemed like a very wild and unpredictable person on stage he was actually a focused musician, that par t of Jimis personality is explained in this quote by Ernie Isley: The best musicians are very observant. They hold their arms wide, willing to embrace suggestions; they study their craft, and Jimi certainly did all that. (Lanham 102) But asShow MoreRelatedThe History Of Rock And Roll1028 Words   |  5 PagesMU1133 The History of Rock and Roll Instructor: Dr. Barry E. Kopetz Heavy Metal is a genre of music that is defined by Dictonary.com as an â€Å"aggressive and heavily amplified rock music, commonly performed by groups that wear spectacular or bizarre costumes†. 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